Pharmacology - FARMACOLOGIA SPECIALE (2017/2018)

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Course code
Name of lecturer
Anna Benini
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
not yet allocated

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Learning outcomes

The course intends to offer a formative formula in identifying multiresistant microorganisms and in antibiotic therapies of the infections (human and animal). The aim is to broaden theoretical knowledge and technical skills, with particular attention to the rapid identification of multiresistant microrganisms and to antibiotic therapy, related to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. The skills will be developed by a group of faculty members in the study of laws by MDR and in the planning of intervention policies and strategies.


Integrated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters (PK / PD):
- Appropriateness of antibiotic therapy;
- How to define the PK / PD parameters and the size of the PK / PD parameters
- PK / PD of penicillins, macrolides, glycopeptides, fluoroquinolones
- The mutant selection window
- Limits of the PK / PD parameters and Monte Carlo simulation

Penetration of antibiotics into difficult tissues
- Physico-chemical characteristics of antibiotics
- Pancreas: penetration of betalactamines (imipenem, piperacilina / tazobactam, meropenem, ertapenem) and
- Prostate: fluoroquinolones, phosphomycin
- Central nervous system: penicillins, meropenem, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones
- Bone tissue: systemic antibiotics and bone cements as antibiotic delivery systems in infection site

Therapeutic Drug monitoring
- indications for the therapeutic dosage of drugs
- Appropriate TDM
- TDM of aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, penicillins, antifungals
- dosing methods

Antibiotics adverse reactions
- Definition of adverse reaction
- Macrolides: cardiovascular risk, Q-T interval elongation, Torsades de pointes
- Fluoroquinolones: phototoxicity, CNS toxicity, Q-T interval elongation, torsades de pointes, cartilage and musculoskeletal toxicity
- Aminoglycosides: oto- and nephrotoxicity
- Colistin: neuro- and nephrotoxicity

Assessment methods and criteria

Written test. Presentation of an experimental or compilative thesis